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Diet and medications are important drivers of human microbiome composition and functional diversity. Medications such as antibiotics have saved billion of lives, but their over prescription has led to several negative effects on gut microbiota, including reduced species diversity, impaired metabolic activity, and selection of antibiotic-resistant organisms.
Antibiotic treatment disturbs the microbial balance of gut microbiota. This can have both short and long-term consequences. Indeed, even if short, antibiotic treatment can shift the gut microbiota to long-term alternative dysbiotic state, which may promote the development and/or aggravation of some diseases, like obesity, diabetes, and asthma.
Knowledge of the gut microbiome and the impact of antibiotic treatment on our intestinal flora may help practitioners to better understand the importance of taking care of our microbiota, specially thanks to protective role of probiotics, such as Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745.